Taekwondo is a version of an ancient form of unarmed combat practiced for many centuries in the orient. Taekwondo became perfected in its present form in South Korea.
Taekwondo is more than merely the use of skilled movements of hand and foot. It also implies a way of life and thinking, particularly in stilling a concept and split of strict self-imposed discipline and an ideal of noble morality.
The Korea Taekwondo attempted to eliminate the old concept of the Kwan (Branch of school) in order to unify Taekwondo. Although there were objections to the elimination of the Kwan system.
The following are the Kwan name and their number:
|Song Moo Kwan||Chun Jung Woong|
|Han Moo Kwan||Lee Kyo Yoon|
|Chang Moo Kwan||Yoon Bung In, Lee Nam Suk, Kim Soon Bae|
|Moo Duk Kwan||Choi Nam Do, Hwang Kee, Hong Jong Soo|
|Oh Do Kwan||Kwak Byung Oh, Choi Hong Hee|
|Kang Duk Won||Park Chul Hee, Lee Kum Hong|
|Jung Do Kwan||Lee Yong Woo|
|Ji Do Kwan||Yoon Kwe Byung, Hyun Jong Myun, Lee Chong Woo|
|Chung Do Kwan||Lee Won Kuk, Uhm Woon Kyu|
|Kwan Ri Kwan||Kim In Suk|
Historical Background Of Taekwondo
People in primitive ages, no matter where they lived, had to develop personal skills to fight in order to obtain their food and to defend themselves against their enemies, including wild animals.
They also had to invent weapons for more effective defense and easier subsistence. However, even after they learned to use weapons, they never stopped their efforts to promote the development of their bodies and minds by practicing various games, especially in the form of religious rites.
The Korean ancestors who settled in several tribal states this land after the neolithic age had many of such activities. Yongko in puyo state, Tongmaeng in Koguryo. Muchon in Ye and Mahan, and Kabi in the silla dynasty are some of the striking examples of the "sports activities" wich ancient Kroeas practiced exercises to improve health of martial abilities.
The long experience of ancient people in defending themselves against the attacks of animals as well as their imitation of the defensive and offensive positions assumed by the animals slowly led the people to develop more effecctive skills of their own in the use of their hands in fighting, thus creating a primitive form of Teakyon(an old name of Taekwondo).
The origin of Taekwondo in this country can be traced back to the Koguryo dynasty, founded 37B.C. since mural paintings found in the ruins of the royal tombs built by that dynasty show scenes of Taekwondo practice. Muyong-chong and kakchu-chong are discovered by a group of archeologists in 1935. They were located Koguryo had its capital in Hwando province.
The ceiling of the Myong-chong carried a painting depiction two men facing each other in Taekwondo practice, while the mural paintings of Kakchu-chong show two men wrestling. In reference to this particular painting, Tatashi Saito, a Japanese historian, in the "Study of Culture in Ancient Korea", says:The painting either shows us that the person buried in the tomb practiced Taekwondo while he was alive or it tells us the people practiced it. Along with dancing and singing, for the purpose of consoling the soul of the dead.
The construction of the above two tombs dates back to the period between 3 A. D. and 427 A. D., Hwando province remained the capital of Koguryo. It can therefore be inferred that Koguryo people started practicing Taekwondo during that period.